Astronomy Test 2 Review - Earth, Sun, and Moon System

    Things for Unit Test 2 you should UNDERSTAND, KNOW, and be able to DO...
    • As our technology has progressed, so has our understanding of celestial objects and events.
    • The Earth and Universe is in a constant state of change.
    • How can we understand things at great distances we can’t see or touch?
    • What is the Earth and Sun’s position in the universe?
    • Most objects in the solar system are in regular and predictable motion.
      • These motions explain such phenomena as the day, the year, seasons, phases of the moon, eclipses, and tides.
      • Gravity influences the motions of celestial objects. The force of gravity between two objects in the universe depends on their masses and the distance between them.
    • Eight planets move around the Sun in nearly circular orbits.
      • The orbit of each planet is an ellipse with the Sun located at one of the foci.
    • Earth is orbited by one moon and many artificial satellites.
    • Earth rotates on an imaginary axis at a rate of 15 degrees per hour. To people on Earth, this turning of the planet makes it seem as though the Sun, the moon, and the stars are moving around Earth once a day. Rotation provides a basis for our system of local time; meridians of longitude are the basis for time zones.
    • The Foucault pendulum and the Coriolis Effect provide evidence of Earth’s rotation.
    • Seasonal changes in the apparent positions of constellations provide evidence of Earth’s revolution.
    • Approximately 70 percent of Earth’s surface is covered by a relatively thin layer of water, which responds to the gravitational attraction of the moon and the Sun with a daily cycle of high and low tides. Describe current theories about the origin of the universe and solar system.
    • Earth's coordinate system of latitude and longitude, with the equator and prime meridian as reference lines, is based upon Earth’s rotation and our observation of the Sun and stars.
    • The altitude of Polaris depends on the latitude of the observer
    • Earth rotates at 15 degrees per hour. Meridians of longitude are the basis for time zones. 
    Vocab Terms: celestial object, constellation, Coriolis Effect, Rotation, Revolution, eccentricity, ellipse, Foucault Pendulum, Focus Point (orbit), solar and lunar eclipses, meteor, moon, phases of the moon, planet, pointer stars,  sun, tide, tilt, waxing, waning, crescent, gibbous, new moon, full moon, latitude, longitude, Polaris, time zone
    • Identify the phases of the moon
    • Determine the latitude and longitude of a given point to the nearest degree
    • Calculate local time based on longitude
    • Determine latitude by use of the star Polaris